Sanjit Krishnan Kaul

sanjit (at) winlab (.) rutgers (.) edu

WINLAB/Electrical and Computer Engineering
Rutgers University

Technology Centre of New Jersey
671 Route 1 South
North Brunswick, N.J. 08902-3390
Phone: 732-447-5630

I am a PhD. student in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rutgers University. Before joining Rutgers in Fall 2004, I  worked on 3GPP systems, for a total of about 4 years, at Hughes Software Systems, India (now Aricent) and Ubinetics (now CSR, India).

My research involves exploring optimal strategies for large wireless networks and wireless channel modeling. I work on medium access control (MAC) in Vehicular Networks and on modeling the vehicle-to-vehicle channel.

At the MAC layer, I focus on time-critical messaging between cars in large vehicular networks. Such messaging is of broadcast nature. Also, networks may contain hundreds of cars that want to broadcast reliably and within bounded delay to each other.

I also model the effect on the wireless channel between two vehicles of the physical presence of cars in their proximity.

Prof. Marco Gruteser is my graduate advisor. I also collaborate with Prof. Roy Yates and Prof. Larry Greenstein. A lot of my work on vehicular networks is in collaboration with Toyota ITC.

Quick Links:

Resume | CV

Research Statement

Teaching Statement


Reliable Broadcast in Vehicular Networks

Vehicular Channel Modeling


                                                Complete List Of Publications

NOTE: The material below is presented to allow timely dissemination of the work. Copyrights and all rights therein are retained by the copyright holders.

[Preparing for Submission] S. K. Kaul, L. Greenstein, and M. Gruteser, “Vehicle-to-Vehicle channel modeling with cars in vicinity,” 2011

[Preparing for submission] S. K. Kaul, R. Yates, M. Gruteser, “Delay Optimal State Dissemination with Piggybacking,”, 2011.


[Accepted For Publication] S. K. Kaul, R. Yates, M. Gruteser, “On Piggybacking in Vehicular Networks,” in Globecom, 2011. [pdf]


[Accepted For Publication] S. K. Kaul, M. Gruteser, V. Rai, and J. Kenney, “Minimizing age of information in congested vehicular networks,” in IEEE Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), 2011. [pdf]

S. Kaul, M. Gruteser, V. Rai, and J. Kenney, “On Predicting and Compressing Vehicular GPS Traces,” in Communications Workshops (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 2010. [

Sangho Oh, Sanjit Kaul, Marco Gruteser, “Exploiting Vertical Diversity in Vehicular Networks Channel Environments," Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2009.

Suhas Mathur, Sanjit Kaul, Marco Gruteser, Wade Trappe. ParkNet: Harvesting Real-Time Vehicular Parking Information Using a Mobile Sensor Network. The S3 Workshop at the 10th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), 2009.

GeoMAC: Geo-backoff Based Co-operative MAC for V2V Networks. Sanjit Kaul, Marco Gruteser, Ryokichi Onishi, Rama Vuyyuru. IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), 2008. (pdf

Effect of Antenna Placement and Diversity on Vehicular Network Communications. Sanjit Kaul, Kishore Ramachandran, Pravin Shankar, Sangho Oh, Marco Gruteser, Ivan Seskar, Tamer Nadeem. IEEE Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), San Diego, 2007. (
pdf) [AR: 20%]

Creating Wireless Multi-hop Topologies on Space-Constrained Indoor Testbeds Through Noise Injection. Sanjit Kaul, Marco Gruteser, and Ivan Seskar. 2nd International Conference on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (Tridentcom), Barcelona, Spain 2006. (

Towards Mobility Emulation Through Spatial Switching on a Wireless Grid. Kishore Ramachandran, Sanjit Kaul, Suhas Mathur, Marco Gruteser, and Ivan Seskar. ACM E-WIND Workshop (held with ACM SIGCOMM), Philadelphia, PA  2005. (

Demo: Mobility Emulation Through Spatial Switching on a Wireless Grid. Kishore Ramachandran, Sanjit Kaul, Suhas Mathur, Marco Gruteser, and Ivan Seskar. ACM/USENIX Intl. Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MOBISYS), Seattle, WA 2005. (pdf)

Reliable Broadcast of Safety Messages

My research contributes to the larger problem of enabling on-road safety using on-road vehicles as the only available infrastructure. On-road vehicles talk to each other via messages. We tackle the communications challenge at the medium access control (MAC) layer, which is to achieve low bounded latency and high delivery reliability, goals that are intrinsic to the success of many envisioned vehicular safety applications. Projects under the category of reliable broadcasting are listed next.
A few links related to safety messaging: The standard: DSRC, Vehicular Communication Spotlight [pdf].
GeoMAC: Geo-Backoff based Co-operative MAC for V2V networks
Reducing Application Messaging Rates using Prediction and Compression of GPS Traces
Minimizing Age of Information in Vehicular Networks using Rate Control
Delay Optimal State Dissemination with Piggybacking
We design Geo-MAC, a MAC protocol that exploits spatial diversity in highly mobile wireless networks. It aims to achieve low latency and high reliability, goals that are intrinsic to the success of many envisioned vehicular safety applications. Conventional MAC layers address reliability through ARQ mechanisms that re-transmit messages from the source, if earlier transmissions were
not acknowledged. Unlike GeoMAC, these schemes essentially exploit temporal diversity since retransmissions are only likely to succeed if the channel has improved.[pdf]
In very dense networks, safety messaging can lead to offered traffic loads that saturate the shared wireless medium. One approach to address this problem is to reduce the frequency of location update messages when the movements of a vehicle can be predicted by nearby vehicles. We study the predictability and compressibility of location traces under different driving conditions.[pdf]
Even in congested networks, when applications may not be able to achieve very high messaging rates, on-road vehicles must be able to converge to the best possible messaging rate, a rate that minimizes the average age (delay) of vehicles’ information at any vehicle in the network. We design a rate control algorithm that achieves the best rate. The algorithm is distributed in nature and adapts to varying number of cars in the network.
We consider the problem of periodic dissemination of time-varying state among nodes in a wireless network, with minimum average delay. We assume packets have large overheads such that node transmissions can piggyback other nodes’ state information with negligible increase in their packet transmission times. Each node will track the state information of any other node with some delay. The optimization problem is to find round robin schedules that minimize the system delay, which is the state information delay averaged over all pairs of nodes in the network.
Research Projects
Reliable Broadcast in Vehicular Networks
 Vehicular Channel Modeling
Work on the ORBIT Grid
Vehicular Channel Modeling

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Channel Modeling with cars in proximity

Effect of Antenna Placement and Diversity on Vehicular Network Communications

We measure and then model the narrowband channel between two cars, separated by up to 50m in distance, while up to five other cars drive in their vicinity. The measurement scenarios are designed to emulate typical on-road multi-lane scenarios. All measurements were carried out in an empty parking lot, which provided a controlled and repeatable environment.

We examine the effects of antenna diversity and placement on vehicle-to-vehicle link performance in vehicular ad hoc networks. The experiments use roof and in-vehicle mounted omni-directional antennas and IEEE 802.11a radios operating in the 5GHz band, which is of interest for planned inter-vehicular communication standards.(pdf)

Emulating Mobility and Creating Topologies on The ORBIT Grid


The ORBIT grid consists of 800 wifi radios hanging from the ceiling in a 20m x 20m space. Other technologies like bluetooth and GNU radios are also supported [ORBIT]. We worked on emulating mobility (pdf) and real-world topologies (pdf) on the grid.